tyoususnappsave.gan - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or Designed by John Round Design Printed in China. Drew Plunkett. Drawing. drawing-for-interior-design By Drew Plunkett. This book covers all stages of visual presentation as part of the interior design process, from early. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Drew Plunkett was Head of the Department of Interior Design at the Glasgow School of Art and has practised as an interior.
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The most basic models can measure lengths up to metres feet with an accuracy of plus or minus 1. Most have built-in spirit levels for horizontal alignment and project a light spot onto the surface defining precisely the length measured, which avoids readings being made to inappropriate obstructions and projections.
The laser tool allows one person to carry out the survey, with no need of an assistant to hold the end of the tape and call out measurements. It is always unwise to assume that corners are perfect right angles because, although most will appear so to the eye, this, particularly in older buildings, is almost never true. It is obviously important that angles are accurate and, to establish these, one should measure the diagonals of the space surveyed.
A diagonal, together with the two walls it connects, represents the sides of a triangle, and when these are drawn to scale the angle of the intersection of the walls is established automatically and accurately.
It is easy to overlook diagonals, just as it is to forget about measuring heights. It is always necessary to have heights of ceilings, door and window heads, window sills, steps in floors and ceilings, the depth of beams and other dimensions particular to individual spaces.
To distinguish these from horizontal dimensions on the drawing it is usual to draw a circle around them and, as far as possible, place them separately from horizontal dimensions. There are usually places in any building where a lot of dimensions must be recorded and it is better to draw these areas separately to a larger scale so that the new drawing has enough space to accommodate the density of information legibly.
It is advisable to try to make the accurately scaled drawing based on the survey findings as quickly as possible, while the realities of the site are fresh in the memory. It is always sensible to take photographs of a space, and particularly of complex areas or details. Digital photography makes prolific record-making easy.
It is sensible to assume that a second surveying visit may be necessary to check discrepancies and correct omissions, and it is diplomatic to warn an occupant or owner of the building of this probability.
It is better to make this sound like a regular procedure than to appear to be correcting oversights.
The top tape, typically 3 metres 10 feet long and more rigid, is used to measure small spaces and heights. The laser measure can also calculate areas and volumes. The drawing on the left page records dimensions of walls and diagonal measurements. The drawing on the right page records dimensions relating to a column and brick pier on the ground floor of the space.
A freehand plan of the space is made in a small sketchbook. While it is good if this is proportionately accurate, it may be distorted to allow more space on the page where a number of dimensions need to be recorded in a small area. In this case, the drawing does not register the angles that emerge when it is redrawn to scale. Such discrepancies can be alarming when they first appear during scaled drawing in the studio and it may be necessary, for peace of mind, to return to the site for confirmation.
If, however, the survey has been comprehensively done to allow cross-referencing dimensions one may be confident that the angles are accurate. The running dimensions for each wall are normally taken from the left-hand corner as one looks at the wall.
Most of the specialist programs fulfil the essential requirements satisfactorily. Those who first used computers in design practice were not only learning an unfamiliar way of working but grappling with equipment that was significantly more difficult to use than current and. Any good interior design school should be inducting students into the use of computers at the beginning of the course. The limitations of hand skills do not allow such extreme diversity of expression.
When experienced designers have polished their computer-imaging skills. This page Two images by the same designer. The impact of the computer 17 The essential skill in making an effective drawing.
Examples on the following pages — each pair is the work of one designer — demonstrate this. On this page drawings show how the computer makes possible the production of images that are distinctly different but that complement the style of the projects they illustrate. Rather than forcing graphic conformity as was. The impact of the computer 19 Above Diverse.
In that above light is harsh. The impact of the computer 21 Above and right Two drawings sit at opposite ends of the graphic spectrum. In the other lighting is soft. A mechanical and electrical engineer will immediately be aware of changes made by a structural engineer and be able to assess their impact.
Ultimately success will depend on the refinement of the representation of materials within the images and on the ease by which spectators control their movement through the interior.
One significant example of this is BIM building information modeling. The maker whose job it was to interpret and implement drawn instructions is relieved of those time consuming obligations and.
Those who learnt and matured as designers in pre-digital times will fade away and ways of visualizing and. It is likely that increasingly specialized programs will continue to evolve to deal with specialist needs but.
It can be initially spectacular but is compromised. So far CNC production has led to the. Variations of lengths and radii. The extraordinarily rapid development of computergenerated visualization suggests that the activity will continue to change significantly.
Already there are examples of intricate CNC.
As CAM computer-aided manufacture develops. A computer programmed machine has no preference for straight or curved lines. The caveat should perhaps be made that objects that are too easily produced may not be subjected to the same scrutiny as those that now evolve.
When such visual refinement is achieved the logical progression will be to complete the sensory repertoire by adding sound and sensations of touch.
Something more extraordinary than these prosaic suggestions. Consultation with the maker of an artefact will be less important in the evolution of ideas and replaced by the advice of manufacturers about the practical and technical performance of their products.
The old Modernist argument that machine production made intricate ornament obsolete is itself made obsolete by the capacity of digitally facilitated creativity and production. This changes the nature of collaboration. CNC software already ensures the most economical use of materials by maximizing the number of components. This latter problem may be overcome by digital projection at a large scale.
The creative process for interior designers is not about how you draw but about what you draw and the more effective tools have inevitably prevailed.
This book makes suggestions about how drawings can be most effectively made by hand. Designers have individual ways of drawing and making. Professionals make such drawings intermittently and are therefore less practised and less inclined to experiment.
The computer makes the production of drawings a little more egalitarian than hand-drafting in that one does not need the same degree of inherent manual dexterity.
Natural talent can only be expressed if it is backed by intense hard work. Others will move quickly to a precise definition of their proposal.
Individual style tends to reflect aesthetic preferences. These emerge from personal ability and individual preference but. The drawings used in this book have been made in the creation. Polishing of skills requires individual commitment.
About this book 23 Above The CAD data that creates the perfect repetition of elements in two dimensions can be translated into the CAM data that manufactures the same threedimensional components for the built interior. Students also tend to be more relaxed when working with computers and therefore more prone to experimentation. Those who make flamboyant gestures within their interiors tend to draw flamboyantly. They have grown up with them as an integral part of their everyday lives.
The interior designer must be able to create a number of quite different types of drawing. These are in a constant state of development and refinement. It is not difficult to have an idea but it is very difficult to convert that intangible thought into a built reality and mastery of the range of drawing techniques underpins and refines the process. Any drawing technique can only improve with sustained.
This is not to trespass into other territories but rather to recognize that the act of drawing — in two or three dimensions. While the conventions should be respected it is possible to fine-tune them to personal taste. About this book This book concentrates on describing why drawings are made. A good hand drawing can still prompt enthusiastic appreciation but an elegant or flamboyant digital image will stimulate the same response. It makes sense to look at the work of students.
Much of the text deals. The computer gives each individual a battery of techniques.
It is good practice. There are circumstances in which it will be obvious that only a few isolated dimensions will be needed. In such cases it becomes necessary to carry out a measured survey and to produce an accurate version of plans. Over a long distance the tape. A very small discrepancy can often cause problems and embarrassment.
If the general outcome can already be anticipated with confidence. Even for recently constructed buildings it is worth checking the accuracy of dimensions on drawings because variations and discrepancies almost inevitably occur. This prevents the accumulative error that is likely to occur when a collection of separate dimensions are aggregated on a drawing.
Unoccupied shells tend to be badly lit and possibly littered with building equipment. The running dimension effectively offers the opportunity for correction with each individual reading. While drawings of existing buildings may frequently be found and referred to.
It is. Running dimensions are made by measuring sequentially all significant points on. This is also the easier method when working alone. Buildings in use are likely to be cluttered with inconveniently placed furniture. When no drawings exist it is normal to draw a plan on site. This is vital.
The most basic models can measure lengths up to metres feet with an accuracy of plus or minus 1. To distinguish these from horizontal dimensions on the drawing it is usual to draw a circle around them and.
Digital photography makes prolific record-making easy. It is always necessary to have heights of ceilings. It is always sensible to take photographs of a space. A diagonal. It is obviously important that angles are accurate and. It is always unwise to assume that corners are perfect right angles because.
Most have built-in spirit levels for horizontal alignment and project a light spot onto the surface defining precisely the length measured. It is easy to overlook diagonals. Measured surveys 27 when possible. The laser measure can also calculate areas and volumes. The top tape. When this is impractical because of clutter. It is better to make this sound like a regular procedure than to appear to be correcting oversights.
It is advisable to try to make the accurately scaled drawing based on the survey findings as quickly as possible. It is sensible to assume that a second surveying visit may be necessary to check discrepancies and correct omissions. The laser tool allows one person to carry out the survey. There are usually places in any building where a lot of dimensions must be recorded and it is better to draw these areas separately to a larger scale so that the new drawing has enough space to accommodate the density of information legibly.
Hand-held laser measuring devices. The dotted-and-dashed line represents a beam overhead. These elements are likely to be unaffected by the project work but their accurate depiction on the plans and sections will give credibility to later drawings and remind the designer about the depth of reveals. It may be that since it is a brick pier.
A return visit may not always be to take additional measurements but could be to confirm that the plan drawn from the original notes is accurate. The drawing on the right page records dimensions relating to a column and brick pier on the ground floor of the space. Such discrepancies can be alarming when they first appear during scaled drawing in the studio and it may be necessary.
The drawing on the left page records dimensions of walls and diagonal measurements. With complicated surveys there are often ambiguities and apparent discrepancies that demand to be checked. When necessary. A few parts of the drawing are shaded for clarification. The two plans in the bottom left of each page record dimensions for the door and window openings. A freehand plan of the space is made in a small sketchbook. In this example. There are projects. It is important to indicate that the measurement is made from the wall and not the face of the projecting brick pier.
When it is necessary to return to a site for additional information it will be very clear what this is and a few isolated dimensions will be enough. In this case. The column position is established on the ground floor by the distance of its centre point. The plan on the right records the location of high-level windows. In this instance its diameter should be recorded and in the case of square or rectangular columns the length of sides.
While it is good if this is proportionately accurate. Heights are recorded in circles to distinguish them from horizontal dimensions.
A rigid wooden or metal calibrated measuring rod is the appropriate tool for making vertical measurements. The diagonals are measured. Right A simple measurement sketch for a space where no new construction is needed.
Measured surveys 29 Right The lower sketch records dimensions for a door frame. These should only be indicated when conveying information essential to understanding of the upper floor. Dotted-and-dashed lines indicate the edges of high level elements. The essential information about any project is communicated in a comprehensive set of plans. The wall between corners A and B is drawn vertically. The whole may be checked by plotting the diagonal from B.
These arrows are good examples of how personal taste may influence the graphic style of a drawing. This is unlikely to be wholly precise.
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The intersection of the arcs. Dashed lines indicates the location of elements below floor level and therefore not visible. Plans are essentially horizontal slices nominally drawn at mm 4 feet above floor level. A D 1 All lines are drawn to scale. A high-level window. Minor discrepancies are acceptable. Where precision is required. They may take any form as long as they are unambiguous. It is sufficient to indicate its position on the edge of the plan.
The position of the beam is determined by the pier that projects from the wall and the column. Too much variation and the drawing will fail to communicate effectively.
Minor variations may be made to these as long as they broadly retain their recognized configurations. Above In this sequence. A high-level window should be indicated with dotted and dashed lines. Essential conventions Plans are essentially horizontal sections nominally drawn at mm 4 feet above floor level. The bottom section shows the standard way to draw stairs.
Whatever that decision may be. The graphic interpretation of plans and sections is a matter of taste. The number of plans is determined by the number of floors but the number of sections depends on the nature of the proposal. If no differentiation is made it is difficult for them to identify the new work. The location of the cut determines how much useful information the drawing will yield. The drawings demonstrate standard conventions that.
Graphic options 33 are so fundamental that significant variation from them is counterproductive but. Dashed lines indicates the location of elements below a floor level and therefore not visible — these should only be indicated when conveying information essential to understanding of the upper floor.
Dotted-and-dashed lines indicate the edges of elements above the floor level. In the examples below. The convention is that it be shown cut off. It is worth noting the standard practice for drawing stairs: On upper floors on the left of each sequence the entire stair is Above The distinction between existing and new elements has been lessened in this sequence.
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An arrow always points towards the top of stairs. Sections are cut as indicated by the section lines. Plans represent proposed upper floor and lower floors. This allows some indication to be made of the construction below it.
This facility with perspective produces images that are closer to reality and therefore easier for nonprofessionals to understand. It is probably most effective for an interior on one level.
With more than one floor level the conventional section. There are a range of standard three-dimensional projections. While it is still possible to conform to traditional axonometric and isometric forms. The purpose of every drawing is to convey information clearly and not to be an end in itself. Freehand sketching provides an effective and immediate way to visualize concepts in the earliest stages of the design process.
Above and right Compasses make circles or set up angles see page It is the more effective tool but. Hand-drawing tools While there is no doubt that the computer has become the tool of choice and a necessity for large and small practices. Felt-tipped pens. The tools and instruments illustrated on these pages. They can be adapted. Above left The wooden pencil remains viable but needs constant sharpening. Above right Pens like that on the left use cartridges of dense. The computer has now superseded the pen as the most effective means of making and reproducing precise drawings.
More sophisticated. The pen tends to be favoured when a more precise line is required. The thinnest nibs 0. An adjustable set square. Drawing by hand 37 Left Scale rulers have the necessary range of standard drawing scales arranged over both faces. It is better to make no pretense to perspectival accuracy and focus attention on content.
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The same rules used to construct a technical drawing may be followed to make a freehand version. However — since designers tend. It is difficult not to feel some loyalty towards something that embodies style and skill. This is not difficult with some practice. If the parameters of the drawing are not formally established it is still possible to get a convincing approximation to perspective if all lines broadly conform to the principle of convergence to a shared vanishing point.
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Controlled variation. Where accuracy is particularly important. It is important to be able to draw a convincing freehand approximation to a right angle. Handmade drawings may have been superseded by computer-generated images as the principle presentation tool but they retain their role as a first means of delineating and communicating ideas.
Accurate proportions can be guaranteed by accurate measurements. It is always difficult to know exactly when a drawing is completed and has no more insights to yield. A first drawing may be made and refined in a series of tracings. Isolated and inadvertent line variation. Those that are available are untypical. Making such drawings does not require elaborate or sophisticated technique.
It is not surprising that it is difficult to find examples of simple. In fact. The concentration needed to control the variation will help keep the line straight. There is always a danger that if a drawing turns out particularly well it may cloud judgment about the quality of the idea it illustrates. Perhaps it is only when it appears to be complete as an artefact that it becomes clear that there is nothing to be gained from pursuing it further.
The first sketches 39 Above left and left These pen drawings use varying thicknesses of line. The plan and the construction lines used to set up the section and perspective have been retained. Weight applied to the pencil point provides variation in line quality and articulation of content. Lines have the constant density of ink. Above The pencil drawing has a richer patina. If a drawing is to be effective. It does not solve the problems generated by those practicalities.
The plans and sections allow the feasibility of the ideas expressed in the perspective views to be checked. The thing to be drawn exists only in the imagination. Representation of light and shade should be kept Above This concise description of the curves that soften the lines of a stair is convincing because.
The first drawings are likely to be crude. There are no subtleties of light and shade to be captured. Right A very early. These will become more detailed and precise as the design process progresses and as the designer gets increasingly clear insights into possibilities and limitations.
There are essential fundamentals and these should be aspired to and. Proportions and perspective should be accurate and plausible. The intention is not to create a perfect set piece or a scrupulous observation of an existing object. It is important in every project that two. Wall tone will differ on either side of a corner because each will receive a different light.
Above left Above The same internal elevation by day and by night conveys information effectively because it is simple and precise. If the play of light and shade becomes too complicated the point of the drawing is likely to be lost in an incoherence of graphic effects.
There are two ways to make a freehand perspective look convincing. This very carefully composed image pays enough attention to perspective to be credible. Each drawing should have one consistent light source so that the convention used to articulate form is easily understood. The edges of shadows should be sharp. The first sketches 41 simple. The same construction principles apply if technical drawing equipment is used for extra precision and straight lines.
Further diagonal subdivision of the resulting quadrants. The same principles will convincingly set up volumes within the space and may be applied to the location of every element.
The height can be varied to dramatise or clarify the view. The tendency is to overestimate their length. If the back wall of the space is drawn in elevation then.
Estimating the lengths of side walls 1 The back wall of the view is drawn freehand but to scale. In perspectives drawn without measuring the tendency will be to overestimate the length of side walls. There comes a point when it is preferable to move away from a credible perspective to something more diagrammatic. The length of side walls is determined by intelligent guess work. Again preliminary experiment will establish the most productive position for both.
Plotting the lengths of side walls 1 The plan and elevation of the back wall are drawn. Its height can be established by plotting it. The shallower angles of the isometric are considered to give a more realistic image. The computer deals equally easily with both but most users prefer to use the isometric because of its more realistic image or.
In axonometric the circle on plan sits within a square. After those few lines are established. If an area is unsatisfactory it is easy to retrace over the flawed original and correct its shortcomings. In both projections. An isometric is made with the two walls nearest to the viewer at 30 degrees to the horizontal. Plans are drawn at angles.
The simple geometry and the consequential simplicity of drawing it make it useful as structure for making quick three-dimensional drawings. In isometrics circular forms become elliptical in both plan and elevation. The axonometric is easier to draw by hand because the plan remains a true rectangle and circular forms on plan remain perfect circles although circles in elevation become elliptical.
While neither method creates a true perspective. When making a freehand axonometric or isometric it is important to concentrate on establishing one corner that conforms credibly to the fundamental principle.
Both are in effect formalized views of an interior from above. In axonometric. The principles for constructing both projections are simple. While perspective drawings rely on lines converging to a shared vanishing point axonometric and isometric drawings rely on parallel lines and are therefore easier to set up without.
The results may be treated as diagrams or rendered to give a more realistic impression of finishes and lighting. It is not difficult to judge angles and relative dimensions by eye if one concentrates and critically assesses the drawing as it takes shape. An axonometric or isometric drawing. If working freehand it is useful to set up a faint technically drawn floor grid. Vertical and horizontal lengths are drawn to the same scale if measured and.
Vertical and horizontal lengths should be drawn to the same scale if measured and. Such elements. An interior contained within thick stone walls will suggest different interventions from one within less substantial construction. When making design drawings by hand. Whether considering a project for the first time or trying to reorientate thinking to solve an emerging problem. New elements drawn freehand will. Fresh exploratory drawings can be made quickly. The semi-transparency of detail paper makes it easier to colour.
The slower pace of making accurate mechanical drawings creates time for attention and the imagination to wander. The grids of graph paper. Detailing paper. If measurements are not checked. When making overlays. Choice of material is. Below This very ordered internal elevation may have been prompted by the decision to draw on graph paper — or may have influenced the same decision after the nature of the solution had emerged. Whatever the sequence.
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In this example circulation around and behind the curved desk looks restricted and suggests that the seat below the window should be flipped horizontally to create space. When the dimensions of rooms and wall thicknesses are known it is reassuring to check practicalities.
A working knowledge of standard furniture dimensions provides useful visual indicators of relative scale. It is not usually good practice to draw large in the first instance. The inevitable weaker sections will undermine strong areas of drawing. The photocopier and the computer scanner also allow the size of an image to be adjusted. Unsatisfactory freehand images. A few of the pencil lines that initially set up this gouache sketch remain visible.
The energy of the image was enough to persuade a sceptical client to commit to the project. While more polished versions of early drawings are preferable for presentation purposes. By contrast. The suggestion of panel joints on the curved form indicates that thinking is being shaped by an awareness of construction.
A large drawing will generally invite or require more detail and inevitably take. The delineation of the seating makes it obvious that the designer has specific examples in mind. Areas that work may be retained. Changes in size frequently seem to improve the quality of a freehand image and are also a useful way to suggest that a number of disparate sketches. The concern is more with describing atmosphere than detail. A reduction in size gives a density of drawing that may be missing in the original.
Above An elemental diagram identifies crucial components in the strategy for the redesign of a space. The handmade diagram that deals only with a single. Interior design projects are very frequently complex and it is good practice to introduce clients to them in a series of steps.
Computer scanning is superior to photocopying in that it reproduces more accurately the quality of line. These can be made using computer-generated views.
Right Traced plans. It is better to photocopy them. It is seldom satisfactory to present scraps of tracing paper to a client. Freehand drawing for presentation 49 time. A4 sheets. Like every other drawing tool it is most effective when its strengths are exploited.
For most designers it is more physically comfortable to draw at a small scale. There is one category of drawing at which the hand excels. If it is considered worth presenting a number together. Credible perspective in particular is much more difficult to sustain in a large drawing. Complex images do not necessarily make good diagrams. This retains an appropriate informality.
Those who favour the technique build a stock of colours and textures. Tissue papers provide blocks of colour. Collaged papers in different colours and tones.
Since they have a degree of transparency it is possible. All these are notoriously difficult and time-consuming to represent by hand. The monochromatic version on the far right. They are cut or torn roughly to shape and lightly sprayed with fixative in order to position them no more permanently than is required to survive the copying process.
Such images. The tissues are applied to the back of the tracing paper. Source materials may be scanned by computer Far left and left While a line drawing defines planes. Below Right A quick line drawing on tracing paper is given solidity by collaged blocks of textured colour. In this drawing on tracing paper. The freehand drawing works particularly well because of the convincing perspective of both sets of curved steps.
Digital scanning offers superior copying quality and the image created can be manipulated further on the computer. Collage 51 and manipulated to take greater account of perspective and scale.
Product details Format Paperback pages Dimensions x x 18mm Other books in this series. Materials and Interior Design Rachael Brown. Add to basket. Since he has practised as an interior designer based in London and Glasgow. He is also active as an exhibitor, curator and critical writer. Table of contents Contents: First Principles, Communicating information Section 1: Furniture, fixtures and fittings Construction techniques Workshop fabrication Fabricating on site Section 6: Stairs, ramps, escalators and lifts Timber construction Steel construction Spiral stairs Balustrades and handrails Section 7:A Harvest of G.
Gwynne download Ethereum: The diagonals are measured. Download Deus Ex: Unoccupied shells tend to be badly lit and possibly littered with building equipment. A few parts of the drawing are shaded for clarification, for example the windows on the top right and, for clear identification, the column in the middle of the floor.
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